Peer-reviewed publications (last update 8/1/18):

1.    Kopec AM, Smith CJ, Ayre NR, Sweat SC, Bilbo SD. (2018) Microglial elimination of dopamine D1 receptors defines sex-specific changes in nucleus accumbens development and social play behavior during adolescence. Nature Communicationsin press. BioRXiv

2.    Kentner, AC, Bilbo, SD, Brown, AS, Hsiao, EY, McAllister, AK, Meyer, U, Pearce, BD, Pletnikov, MV, Yolken, RH, Bauman, MD. Maternal immune activation:  reporting guidelines to improve the rigor, reproducibility, and transparency of the model. Neuropsychopharmacology, in press.

3.    Kopec AM, Fiorentino, MR, Bilbo SD. (2018) Gut-immune-brain dysfunction in autism: importance of sex. Brain Research, Invited review, Special issue on the Gut in Autism, 15:214-217.

4.    Dozmorov MK, Bilbo SD, Kollins S, Zucker N, Schechter JC, Do EK, Zhang J, Murphy S, Hoyo C, Fuemmeler BF. (2018) Associations between maternal cytokine levels during gestation and child neurodevelopment. Brain Behav Immun, 70:390-397.

5.    Hanamsagar R, Bilbo SD. (2017) Environment matters: microglia function and dysfunction in a changing world. Curr Opin Neurobiol, Special issue on Glial Biology, 47:146-155

6.    McCullough, LE, Miller, EE, Calderwood, LE, Shivappa, N, Steck, SE, Forman, MR, Mendez,  M, Maguire, R, Fuemmeler, BF, Kollins, SH, Bilbo, SD, Huang, Z, Murtha, AP, Murphy, SK, Hebert, JR, Hoyo, C. (2017) Maternal inflammatory diet and adverse pregnancy outcomes: circulating cytokines and genomic imprinting as potential regulators? Epigenetics, 12(8):688-697.

7.    Bolton, JL, Wiley, MG, Ryan, B, Truong, S, Strait, M, Baker, DC, Yang, NY, Ilkayeva, O, O’Connell, TM, Wroth, SW, Sanchez, CL, Swamy, G, Newgard, C, Kuhn C, Bilbo, SD*, Simmons, LA*. (2017) Perinatal western-type diet and associated gestational weight gain alter postpartum maternal mood. Brain & Behavior, 14; 7(10):e00828. *Equal contributions

8.    Hanamsagar, R, Alter, MD, Block, CS, Sullivan, H, Bolton, JL, Bilbo, SD. (2017) Generation of a microglial developmental index in mice and in humans reveals a sex difference in maturation and immune reactivity.GLIA, 65:1504-1520.

9.    Bilbo, SD, Block, CL, Bolton, JL, Hanamsagar, R, Tran, PK. (2017) Beyond Infection – Maternal immune activation by environmental factors, microglial development, and relevance for autism spectrum disorders. Experimental Neurology, 299:241-251.

10. Bolton, JL, Marinero, S, Hassanzadeh, T, Natesan, D, Le, D, Belliveau, C, Mason, SN, Auten, RL, Bilbo, SD. (2017) Gestational Exposure to Air Pollution Alters Cortical Volume, Microglial Morphology, and Microglia-Neuron Interactions in a Sex-Specific Manner.  Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience, 31;9:10.

11. Lacagnina, ML, Kopec, AM, Cox SS, Hanamsagar, R, Wells C, Slade S, Grace, PM, Watkins LR, Levin, ED, Bilbo, SD. (2017) Opioid self-administration is attenuated by early-life experience and gene therapy for anti-inflammatory IL-10 in the nucleus accumbens.  Neuropsychopharmacology, 42(11):2128-2140.

12. Parker, W, Holzknecht, Z, Hornik, CD, Bilbo, SD, Gentry, LA, Lin, S, Nevison, C.  (2017) The role of oxidative stress, inflammation, and acetaminophen exposure from birth to early childhood in the induction of autism. Journal of International Medical Research, 45(2): 407-438.

13. Kopec, AM, Rivera, PD, Lacagnina, ML, Hanamsagar, R, & Bilbo, SD.  (2017) Optimized solubilization of TRIzol-precipitated protein permits Western blotting analysis to maximize data available from brain tissue.  Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 280: 64-76.

14. Lacagnina, ML, Rivera, PD, Bilbo, SD. (2017) Glial and neuroimmune-mediated changes in plasticity as critical modulators of drug use and abuse.  Neuropsychopharmacology Reviews, 42(1): 156-177.

15. Kraft, AD, Aschner, M, Cory-Slechta, DA, Bilbo, SD, Caudle, WM, & Makris, SL. (2016) Unmasking silent neurotoxicity following developmental exposure to environmental toxicants. Neurotoxicology and Teratology,55: 38-44.

16. Hanamsagar, R & Bilbo, SD. (2016) Sex differences in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders: Focus on microglial function and neuroinflammation during development. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, 160: 127-33.

17. Williamson, LL, McKenney, E, Holzknecht, ZE, Belliveau, C, Rawls, J, Parker, W, & Bilbo, SD. (2016) Got worms?  Perinatal helminths treatment prevents persistent immune sensitization and cognitive dysfunction induced by early-life infection. Brain, Behavior, & Immunity, 51: 14-28.

  • Selected for Brief Commentary Highlight by Brain, Behavior, & Immunity, “There’s no place like biome: Can helminths restore the body’s ecosystem?”. 

18. Posillico, CK, Terasaki, LS, Bilbo, SD*, & Schwarz, JM*. (2015) Effects of sex on morphine-induced analgesia and inflammatory gene expression along the pain pathway in male and female Sprague Dawley rats. Biology of Sex Differences, 6: 33. * Equal contributions.

19. McKenney, EA, Williamson, LL, Rawls, JF, Bilbo, SD, & Parker, W. (2015) Alteration of the rat cecal microbiota during colonization with the helminth Hymenolepis dimunita. Gut Microbes, 6(3): 182-93.

20. Bilbo, SD, Nevison, CD, & Parker, W. (2015) A model for the induction of autism in the ecosystem of the human body: The anatomy of a modern pandemic?  Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease, 26:26253. 

21. Bolton, JL & Bilbo SD.  (2014) Developmental programming of brain and behavior by perinatal diet: focus on inflammatory mechanisms. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, Invited Review, 16(3): 307-20. 

22. Williamson, LL & Bilbo SD.  (2014) Neonatal infection modulates behavioral flexibility and hippocampal activation on a Morris Water Maze task.  Physiology and Behavior, 129: 152-9.

23. Bolton, JL, Auten RL, & Bilbo, SD. (2014) Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure Induces Sexually Dimorphic Fetal Programming of Metabolic and Neuroinflammatory Outcomes in Adult Offspring. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 37: 30-44.

24.  Lieblein-boff, JC, McKim DB, Shea, DT, Wei, P, Deng, Z, Sawicki, C, Quan, N, Bilbo, SD, Bailey, MT, McTigue, DM, & Godbout, JP. (2013) Neonatal E. coli infection causes neuro-behavioral deficits associated with hypomyelination and neuronal sequestration of iron.  Journal of Neuroscience, 33(41): 16334-345.

25.  Schwarz, JM & Bilbo SD. (2013) FACS analysis of neuronal-glial interactions in the nucleus accumbens following morphine administration. Psychopharmacology, 230(4): 525-35.

26.  Bolton, JL, Huff, NC, Smith, SH, Mason, SN, Foster WM, Auten RL, & Bilbo, SD.  (2013) Maternal stress and effects of prenatal air pollution on offspring mental health outcomes in mice.  Environmental Health Perspectives, 121(9): 1075-82.

27.  Bilbo, SD. (2013) FRANK A. BEACH AWARD: Programming of neuroendocrine function by early-life experience: A critical role for the immune system.  Hormones and Behavior, 63(5): 684-91.

28.  Williamson, LL & Bilbo SD.  (2013) Chemokines and the hippocampus: A new perspective on hippocampal plasticity and vulnerability.  Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 30:186-94.

29.  Schwarz, JM, & Bilbo SD. (2013) Adolescent morphine exposure affects long-term microglial function and later-life relapse liability in a model of addiction. Journalof Neuroscience, 33(3):961-71.

30.  Block, ML, Elder, A, Auten RL, Bilbo SD et al. (2012) The outdoor air pollution and brain health workshop.  Neurotoxicology, 33(5):972-84.

31.  Bilbo, SD & Schwarz, JM.  (2012) The immune system and developmental programming of brain and behavior.  Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 33(3):267-86.

32.  Bolton, JL, Smith SH, Huff NC, Gilmour MI, Foster WM, Auten RL, &Bilbo, SD.  (2012) Prenatal air pollution exposure induces neuroinflammation and predisposes offspring to weight gain in adulthood in a sex-specific manner.  The FASEB J, 26(11):4743-54.  

  • Selected by Faculty of 1000

33.  Bilbo, SD, Jones, JP, & Parker, W. (2012) Is autism a member of a family of diseases resulting from genetic/culture mismatches? Implications for treatment and prevention. Autism Research and Treatment, Invited Review.2012:910946.

34.  Schwarz, JM, & Bilbo SD.  (2012) Sex, glia and development: interactions in health and disease.Hormones and Behavior, 62(3):243-53.

35.  Schwarz, JM, Sholar, P, & Bilbo SD.  (2012) Sex differences in microglial colonization of the developing rat brain. Journal of Neurochemistry, 120(6): 948-63.

36.  Williamson, LL, Chao, A, & Bilbo SD.  (2012) Environmental enrichment alters glial antigen expression and neuroimmune function in the adult rat hippocampus.  Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 26(3): 500-10.

37.  Bilbo, SD, Smith, SH, Schwarz, JM. (2011) A lifespan approach to neuroinflammatory and cognitive disorders:  A critical role for glia.  Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology,7(1): 24-41.

38.  Schwarz, JM, Hutchinson, MR, & Bilbo SD. (2011) Early-life experience decreases drug-induced reinstatement of morphine CPP in adulthood via microglial-specific epigenetic programming of anti-inflammatory IL-10 expression.  Journal of Neuroscience, 31(49):  17835-47.

39.  Williamson, LL, Sholar, PW, Mistry RS, Smith, SH, and Bilbo, SD.  (2011) Microglia and memory: modulation by early-life infection. Journal of Neuroscience, 31(43): 15511-21.

40.  Bilbo, SD, Wray, G, Perkins, SE, & Parker, W. (2011) Reconstitution of the human biome as the most reasonable solution for epidemics of allergic and autoimmune diseases.  Medical Hypotheses, 77(4); 494-504.

41.  Schwarz, JM, & Bilbo SD. (2011) LPS elicits a much larger and broader inflammatory response than E. coli infection within the brains of neonatal rats.  Neuroscience Letters, 497(2); 110-115.

42.  Bilbo, SD. (2010) Early-life infection is a vulnerability factor for aging-related immune changes and cognitive decline.  Neurobiology of Learning & Memory, 94(1); 57-64.

43.  Bland, ST, Beckley JT, Watkins LR, Maier SF, & Bilbo SD. (2010) NeonatalE. coli infection alters glial, cytokine, and neuronal gene expression in response to acute amphetamine in adolescent rats.  Neuroscience Letters, 474(1); 52-57.

44.  Bilbo, SD & Tsang, V. (2010) Enduring consequences of maternal obesity for brain inflammation and behavior of offspring.  TheFASEB J, 24(6); 2104-15.

45.  Bland, ST, Beckley JT, Young S, Tsang V, Watkins LR, Maier SF, & Bilbo SD. (2010) Enduring consequences of early-life infection on glial and neural cell genesis within cognitive regions of the brain.  Brain, Behavior, & Immunity, 24, 329-338.

46.  Bilbo, SD, Wieseler, J, Barrientos, RM, Watkins, LR, & Maier, SF. (2010) Neonatal bacterial infection alters fever to live and simulated infections in adulthood.Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, 369-381.

47.  Bilbo, SD & Schwarz, JM. (2009) Early-life programming of later-life brain and behavior: A critical role for the immune system. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 3, 14, 1-14.

48.  Bilbo, SD, Yirmiya, R, Amat, J, Paul, ED, Watkins, LR, & Maier, SF.  (2008) Bacterial infection early in life protects against stressor-induced depressive-like symptoms in adult rats.  Psychoneuroendocrinology,33, 261-269.

49.  Bilbo, SD, Barrientos, RM, Eads, A, Northcutt, A, Watkins, LR, Rudy, JR, & Maier, SF. (2008) Early-life infection leads to altered BDNF and IL-1 mRNA expression in rat hippocampus following contextual learning in adulthood. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 22, 451-455.

50.  Zala, SM, Chan, B, Bilbo, SD, Potts, WK, Nelson, RJ, & Penn, DJ.  (2008) Genetic resistance to infection influences a male's sexual attractiveness and modulation of testosterone. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 22, 381-387.

51.  Bowers, SL, Bilbo, SD, Dhabhar, FS, & Nelson, RJ. (2008) Stressor specific alterations in corticosterone and immune function in mice. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 22, 105-113.

52.  Bilbo, SD, Newsum, NJ, Sprunger, DB, Watkins, LR, Rudy, JW, & Maier, SF. (2007) Differential effects of neonatal handling on early life infection-induced alterations in cognition in adulthood.Brain, Behavior, and Immunity21, 332-342.

53.  Bilbo, SD, Rudy, JW, Watkins, LR, & Maier, SF.  (2006) A behavioral characterization of neonatal infection-facilitated memory impairment in adult rats. Behavioural Brain Research, 169, 39-47.

54.  Bilbo, SD, Biedenkapp, JC, Der-Avakian, A, Watkins, LR, Rudy, JW, & Maier, SF.  (2005) Neonatal infection-induced memory impairment following lipopolysaccharide in adulthood is prevented via caspase-1 inhibition.  The Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 8000-8009.

55.  Bilbo, SD, Levkoff, LH, Mahoney, JH, Watkins, LR, Rudy, JR, & Maier, SF. (2005) Neonatal infection induces memory impairments following an immune challenge in adulthood.  Behavioral Neuroscience, 119, 293-301.

56.  Prendergast, BJ, Bilbo, SD, Nelson, RJ.  (2005) Short day lengths enhance skin immune responses in gonadectomized Siberian hamsters.  Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 17, 18-21.

57.  Neigh, GN, Glasper, EL, Bilbo, SD, Traystman, RJ, & DeVries, AC.  (2005) Cardiac arrest/ cardiopulmonary resuscitation augments cell-mediated immune function and transiently suppresses humoral immune function. J of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, 25, 1424-32.

58.  Prendergast, BJ, Bilbo, SD & Nelson, RJ.  (2004) Photoperiod controls the induction, retention and retrieval of antigen-specific immunological memory.  American Journal of Physiology, 286, R54-60.

59.  Bilbo, SD & Nelson, RJ. (2004) Photoperiod influences the effects of exercise and food restriction on an antigen-specific immune response in Siberian hamsters.  Endocrinology, 145, 556-564.

60.  Prendergast, BJ, Hotchkiss, AH, Bilbo, SD & Nelson, RJ.  (2004) Peripubertal immune challenges attenuate reproductive development in male Siberian hamsters.  Biology of Reproduction, 70, 813-820.

61.  Prendergast, BJ, Bilbo, SD, Dhabhar, FS & Nelson, RJ.  (2004) Effects of photoperiod history on immune responses to intermediate day lengths in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).  Journal of Neuroimmunology, 149, 31-39.

62.  Neigh, GN, Bilbo, SD, Hotchkiss, AH, & Nelson, RJ.  (2004) Exogenous pyruvate prevents stress-evoked suppression of mitogen-stimulated proliferation.  Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 18, 425-433.

63.  Bilbo, SD, Hotchkiss, AH, Chiavegatto, S, & Nelson, RJ. (2003) Blunted stress responses in delayed type hypersensitivity in mice lacking the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 140, 41-48.

64.  Bilbo, SD, Quan, N, Prendergast, BJ, Bowers, SL, & Nelson, RJ.  (2003) Photoperiod alters the time course of brain cyclooxygynase-2 expression in Siberian hamsters.  Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 15, 958-964.

65.  Bilbo, SD, Dhabhar, FS, Viswanathan, K, Light, A & Nelson, RJ.  (2003) Photoperiod affects the expression of sex and species differences in leukocyte number and leukocyte trafficking of congeneric hamsters. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 28, 1027-1043.

66.  Bilbo, SD & Nelson, RJ.  (2003) Sex differences in photoperiodic and stress-induced enhancement of immune function in Siberian hamsters.  Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 17, 462-472.

67.  Prendergast, BJ, Hotchkiss, AH, Bilbo, SD, Kinsey, SG & Nelson, RJ. (2003) Photoperiodic adjustments in immune function protect Siberian hamsters from lethal endotoxemia.  Journal of Biological Rhythms, 18, 51-62.

68.  Bilbo, SD, Dhabhar, FS, Viswanathan, K, Saul, A, Yellon, SM & Nelson, RJ. (2002). Short day lengths augment stress-induced leukocyte trafficking and stress-induced enhancement of skin immune function.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99, 4067-4072.

69.  Bilbo, SD, Drazen, DL, Quan, N, He, L & Nelson, RJ. (2002).  Short day lengths attenuate the symptoms of infection in Siberian hamsters.  Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, Biological Sciences, 269, 447-454.

70.  Bilbo, SD & Nelson, RJ. (2002).  Melatonin regulates energy balance and attenuates fever in Siberian hamsters.  Endocrinology, 143, 2527-2533.

71.  Bilbo, SD & Nelson, RJ. (2001).  Sex steroid hormones enhance immune function in male and female Siberian hamsters.  American Journal of Physiology, 280, R207-213.

72.  Bilbo, SD & Nelson, RJ. (2001).  Behavioral phenotyping of transgenic and knockout animals: A cautionary tale.  Lab Animal, 30, 24-29.

73.  Drazen, DL, Bilu, D, Bilbo, SD & Nelson, RJ. (2001).  Melatonin enhancement of splenocyte proliferation is attenuated in mice by luzindole, a melatonin receptor antagonist. American Journal of Physiology, 280, R1476-1482.

74.  Bilbo, SD, Day, LB, & Wilczynski, W. (2000).  Anticholinergic effects in frogs in a Morris water maze analog.  Physiology & Behavior, 69, 351-357.

75.  Bilbo, SD, Klein, SL, DeVries, AC, & Nelson, RJ. (1999). Lipopolysaccharide facilitates partner preference behaviors in female prairie voles.  Physiology & Behavior,68, 151-156.


Books, Chapters, and Commentaries:

1.     Bilbo, SD. (2018) The diverse culinary habits of microglia. Nature Neuroscience, 23 July.  Invited Commentary.

2.    Bilbo, SD. (2017) Sex differences in microglial appetites during development: inferences and implications.  Brain, Behavior, & Immunity, 64:9-10.  Invited Commentary.

3.    Schwarz, JM and Bilbo, SD.  (2013) Microglia and Neurodevelopment:  Programming of Cognition Throughout the Lifespan.  The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Psychoneuroimmunology.

4.    Bilbo, SD and Klein, SL. (2012) Special Issue:  The Neuroendocrine-Immune Axis in Health and Disease.  Hormones and Behavior, 62(3), 187-90.  Editorial.

5.    Schwarz, JM and Bilbo, SD.  (2011) The Immune System and the Developing Brain.  McCarthy’s The Developing Brain Series. Morgan & Claypool Life Sciences. 

6.    Bilbo, SD. (2011) How cytokines leave their mark: The role of the placenta in developmental programming of brain and behavior.  Brain, Behavior, & Immunity, 25(4): 602-3.  Invited Commentary.


Invited reviews targeted for a lay audience:

1.    Bilbo SD. (2017) Sex differences shape brain development and function, in health and disease: Policy implications. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Invited opinion article.

2.    Bilbo SD, Stevens B. Immune cells that wire and unwire the brain. Cerebrum, a publication of The Dana Foundation: